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Topographical Views & Exploration

Topographical Views and Exploration Prints

De BRY, Johann Theodor, (1560-1623) and Johann Israel de Bry (1565-1609). Part III, Terceira Island in the Azores. From the “Little Voyages”

De BRY, Johann Theodor, (1560-1623) and Johann Israel de Bry (1565-1609). Part III, Terceira Island in the Azores. From the “Little Voyages”

8,500.00

De BRY, Johann Theodor, (1560-1623) and Johann Israel de Bry (1565-1609). Part III, Terceira Island in the Azores. From the “Little Voyages”

$8,500.00

Plate I, A Cidade de Angra na Ilhade ie sv xpo de Tercera
From Part III of Johann Theodor de Bry (1561-1623) and Johann Isreal de Bry's (1565-1609) Orientalische Indien (“Little Voyages”), Dritter Theil indiae orientalis...Frankfurt: 1599 (first edition)
Engraving with original, early 17th century hand color heightened with gold on laid paper; paper dimensions: approximately: 11 1/2 x 7 1/2 inches
Printed by Matthias Becker
van Groesen 52

TERCEIRA ISLAND IN THE AZORES

The caption to the map "A cidade de Angra na Ilha de Iesu xpo da Tercera" indicates that the map gives a bird's eye view of the city of Angra on the island of Terceira. Terceira is one of the Azores islands. One of the two Latin scrolls reads "Auctor Ioannes Hugonius A. linschoten. a:o 1595".

Angra was Jan Huygen van Linschoten's home for two years. After his stay in the Indian city of Goa, Van Linschoten set out for Europe with a Portuguese return fleet in 1588. One of the ships was wrecked off the Azores in 1591. Van Linschoten was given the task of staying behind to protect the cargo. At the request of the Portuguese governor of the islands, Dom Christovão de Moura, he made a map of the city.

Van Linschoten's map of Angra is the oldest known drawing of the city. We see Fort St. Sebastiano on the headland at the right and the estates sprawling over the hills of Terceira like patchwork, to the remarkable giant's feet on thebottom left with which the city seems to be greet- ing us. At the bottom right he drew a Portuguese three-master, or in Dutch kraakschip, from the Portuguese caracca, in turn a loan word from the Arabic: karakir.

The translation from Latin in the scroll at the bottom center is in German (Eijgentliche furbil- dung, der Insel Tercera sampt der Stadt, und Schloß Angra, welcher alle di Insellen so man Azores nonet under worffen sindt, von wegen des Kunigs Gubernator, und Raht so sich alhie auff halten), even though the print comes from a French edition of Van Linschoten's work.

ENGRAVED PLATES FROM VOLUME III OF DE BRY’S ‘LITTLE VOYAGES’ OF THE EAST INDIES

Featuring Depictions of: The Azores, India, Sumatra, Madagascar, Pugnatan Island, Bantam Island, Sri Lanka, Bali, Nova Zembla and Kola

Documenting Linschoten’s Voyages (Contined from Vol. II), Cornelis de Houtman's Voyage to the East Indies (1595-1597), and Gerrit de Veer's Journal of Three Dutch voyages to reach the East Indies by the North (1594- 1597).

For years, the Dutch had watched Portuguese trade vessels sail to the Far East and return to the ports of Portugal loaded with valuable spices. Now, at the end of the 16th century, sweeping changes were about to happen. The nation was at war with Spain since 1568. It was made difficult for merchants to put in at the ports of Portugal, Spain's neighboring country with which the Dutch Republic had also been drawn into war. All this led a small group of Dutch entrepreneurs to decide to establish a trade company enabling them to undertake voyages to the East by themselves. This would become the Compagnie van Verre (long-distance company). But how to go about it, without encountering enemy ship of the Portuguese?

On April 2, 1595, Cornelis de Houtman and his brother Frederik de Houtman set sail from Texel to the East with the Amsterdam, the Hollandia, the Mauritius and the pinnace Duyfken.  The first voyage ("De eerste schipvaert") was actually not much of a success. On board, the crew was suffering from hunger and diseases like scurvy. The commander had to deal with exhaustion and mutiny among the crew. Only halfway through the journey, near Madagascar, a part of the crew had to be buried. Before long, flaming row developed between the skippers and the merchants, especially since no admiral of the fleet had been appointed.

The ships arrived at the Javanese city of Bantam on June 27, 1596. Here they assumed to be safe from the Portuguese. When a Portuguese ship did arrive, De Houtman let his men attack it. Bantam, too, got involved in the battle, for which the Dutchmen were not appreciated. They hurried out of the place. At a certain point, there were not enough men left to crew all four of the ships. Thus, they decided to set fire to the Amsterdam.

The ships sailed east past Java and arrived at Madura island, where they were received peacefully. Fearing betrayal, De Houtman ordered to attack the locals, which was executed with great cruelty, upon which they fled. Also on the adjacent island of Bali, the Dutch received a warm welcome. Some of the crew even decided to stay there. Since the crew did not want to sail any longer, De Houtman decided not to set course any further to the East, the Moluccas. Instead, he returned home.

The voyage hardly yielded any profit and the company could barely cover its cost with the revenues. Only 89 of a crew of 249 survived. The goal of the voyage however, proving the possibility of reaching Asia past Cape of Good Hope, without being troubled by the Portuguese, was achieved. This expedition was one of the contributing factors to give rise to the establishment of the East India Company (VOC) in 1602.

The journal of this first voyage ("De Eerste Schipvaert") is an outstanding source that still allows us to undergo the very adventures of De Houtman and his men. The story, together with its numerous illustrations, shows the tribes they encountered along the way and how these strangers lived, ate, sang and danced. The Dutchmen wondered about all the new things they encountered, sometimes in fear, sometimes in astonishment.*

*Research provided by Martine Gosselink, head of the History department at the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Netherlands.

**Translated from original German by Karl Nesseler.

Description compiled by Erik Brockett who is pleased to provide additional information relating to this or other examples of the work of Johann Theodor de Bry available at Arader Galleries. He can be contacted at erikbrockett@aradergalleries.com

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