WYTFLIET, Cornelius (1555-1597). Histoire Universelle des Indes Orientales et Occidentales. Douay: Chez Franchois Fabri, 1607.

$ 34,000.00

Folio, (12 x 8 inches). 3 engraved pictorial title pages (the first supplied in facsimile, without text leaves S4 and final two leaves, f6 in part three with marginal stain, some browning and staining). Part I "Histoire Universelle des Indes Orientales et Occidentales" (Wytfliet): [1-6], 1-34, 38, 36-76, [1-2], 77-136, [1-6]. Part II "Histoire Universelle des Indes Orientales" (Magin): [1-12], 1-28, 19, 30-41, [1], 42, [1], 43, [1], 44, [1], 45, 34, 45, 36, 47, 38, 49, 40-72. Part III "Histoire Universelle des Indes Orientales, de la Conversion des Indiens": [1-2], 1, [1], 2, [1], 3, [1], 4, [1], 8, [1], 6, [1], 7,[1], 7, [1], 9-17, 22, 19-22, 19, 24-71, 66. 19 fine engraved double-page maps, woodcut initials, head- and tail-pieces (slight browning). Later vellum over pasteboard (rebacked, covers bowed).

Provenance: Contemporary marginalia. From the important library of Jean R. Perrette, his sale, Ex Libris Jean R. Perrette: Important Travel, Exploration & Cartography, April 5, 2016, Christie's sale 12259, Lot 34, with Perrette's bookplate to the front pastedown.

Second French edition, first published in 1605, of "the first separately published atlas devoted to the Americas" (Skelton). 3 parts in one volume. With Mercator's map of the world (Shirley 207: "Reduced from Rumold Mercator's map of ten years earlier") and 18 maps of the Americas. The first part is extracted and freely translated from the first edition published in Latin in 1597, "Descriptionis Ptolemaicæ augmentum," and the fine and important series of American maps are printed from the same copper plates, with only very minor changes, primarily to the titles. The second part was written by Magini and is entirely devoted to the East Indies. Cornelis van Wytfliet, secretary to the Council of Brabant, called his atlas of the New World a supplement to Ptolemy's "Geography," although the two works are actually quite separate. Dedicated to King Philip III of Spain, and covering the history of the first European encounters with the New World, its geography, and natural history, Wyfliet used as his source the works of Acosta, Hakluyt, de Bry and Ramusio. Wytfliet's atlas was an immediate success, and six further editions, including three with French text (as here), were published within the next two decades. "It is as important in the history of the early cartography of the new world, as Ptolemy's maps are in the study of the old" (Phillips).

The very fine and important maps are: [1] Utriusque Hemispherii delineatio. Double-hemispherical world map: "Curiously enough on this map the longitude of California is only about 40°. Wytfliet apparently had to shorten this in order to get America on the hemisphere. No names are shown on the coast, only to the north: El Streto de Anian and Anian Regnum" (Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast, p. 293). [The World Encompassed 204. Moreland & Bannister, Antique Maps p. 251 (illustrated) & p. 254. Shirley 207 & Plate 165. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici: 371:11:1 (illustrated 0001:371). Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast 191].

[2] Chica sive Patagonica et Australis Terra. Divided into two sections, the top showing Patagonia and Strait of Magellan, the lower showing Antarctica. [JCB, Archive of Early American Images B07-110-000. Schilder, Australia Unveiled, pp. 18-19. Tooley, The Mapping of Australia and Antarctica 1439. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:2 (illustrated 9950:371.1)].

[3] Chili Provincia amplissima. Coast of Chile from Camana to Valdivia and the Rio de Palominos or present-day Rio Calle-Calle, with many towns located along the coast. [JCB, Archive of Early American Images B07-112-000. Phillips, America, p. 233. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:3 (illustrated 9920:371)].

[4] Plata Americae Provincia. Part of South America, including Rio de la Plata region and its tributaries, Uruguay, and interior parts of southern Brazil, Chile, and Peru. This is a foundation map for the area. "R. de buenas arres" is noted. Also indicated is Asunción, where Cabeza de Vaca, after his sojourn in Texas, helped establish government for the remaining colonists of Buenos Aires in 1541. [Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:4 (illustrated 9910:371)].

[5] Brasilia. Coast of Brasil from the Tropic of Capricorn north. Most of the place names given are around the coast, while most of the interior is blank. [Phillips, America, p. 170. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:5 (illustrated 9850:371)].

[6] Peruani Regni descriptio. Coast of Peru with considerable interior detail; includes parts of Bolivia, Ecuador, and part of Brazil. Both Inca and Spanish cities are shown. Spanish development was rapid and early due to mining in the area. [Phillips, America, p. 692. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:6 (illustrated 9820:371:1)].

[7] Castilia Aurifera cum vicinis provinciis. Northwest portion of South America (mostly Colombia, with parts of Venezuela and Panama). On the prominent place name "Castilla del Oro": "This name has a shifting lodgement in the early maps and writers" (Winsor, Narrative and Critical History of America, ill. between pp. 190-191 in vol. II). In addition to the good configuration of the coastline, many locations are shown, both on the coast and interior. [JCB, Archive of Early American Images B07-111-000. Kohl 261. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:7 (illustrated 9810:371)].

[8] Residuum continentis cum adiacentibus insulis. Northern coast of South America and the Lesser Antilles. This map was used as a source for the multi-volume work published in the late nineteenth-century boundary dispute between Brazil and French Guiana (Frontières entre le Brésil et la Guyane Française, Vol. V:2451). [Phillips, America, p. 1052. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:8 (illustrated 9700:371)].

[9] Hispaniola insula. Island of Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) and the east end of Cuba. Columbus landed on the island of Hispaniola on December 5, 1492, and claimed it for Spain, naming it "La Isla Española." He built the first Spanish settlement in the New World from the timbers of his ship. "P. Nativitat," which is shown on the north side of this map, where Columbus's settlement was located. The map shows both Spanish and indigenous settlements. "After 1540 there was a long period of stagnation in the representation of Santo Domingo. It did appear as a single map, Hispaniola Insula, in...Wytfliet in 1597, but this map represents a regression on the early versions" (B.W. Higman, "The Cartography of the Caribbean, 1500-1560" in Vol. II, General History of the Caribbean: New Societies, The Caribbean in the Long Sixteenth Century, UNESCO, 1999, p. 315). [Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:9 (illustrated 9630:371)].

[10] Cuba Insula et Iamaica. Cuba, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, eastern part of Hispaniola. Cuba had been settled for thousands of years by Arawak-speaking tribes, and was densely populated in its eastern half when first seen by Europeans during the first voyage of Columbus, who reported the Taino name as "Colba." This dynamic map shows many place names on the coast as well as the interior, and mountains are delineated in hachure. [Cueto, Cuba in Old Maps 16. Kapp, Printed Maps of Jamaica up to 1825 5. Phillips, America, p. 253. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:10 (illustrated 9610:271).]

[11] Iucatana Regio et Fondura. Yucatán peninsula and southeastern Mexico to northern Panama, including Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. The 1597 state of the map "was the only sixteenth-century map to focus solely on Central America... This map is a good example of the image of Central America that was being formed in the European mind" (Bornholt, Cuatro Siglos de Expresiones Geográficas del Istmo Centroamericano 26, p. 64). "This map gives to Honduras (Fondura) all of the territory east of the Rio Grande [today's Rio Dulce], which is represented as flowing from a large body of water, apparently the Gulf of Dulce" (Mediation of the Honduran-Guatemalan Boundary Question, vol. I, p. 493). [Phillips, America, p. 214. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:11 (illustrated 9550:371). Antochiw, Historia cartográfica de la Península de Yucatán, Plate 4 in portfolio].

[12] Hispania Nova. Mexico from the far northwestern region to the southeastern area. "This map concentrated on the Spanish area of influence in present day Mexico. Like a lot of his maps he draws from Plancius' world map of 1592 amongst others. The area covered takes in all of present day southern Texas up to the latitude of 30° north.... No other states of the map are known and all issues are without text on the back" (Burden 105). The map focuses on the Spanish sixteenth-century exploration of Mexico and the Borderlands, and includes the western part of the Gulf of Mexico. The paucity of dates on Texas indicates how little was then known of the area. Modern cities of Mexico located by their present placenames include Acapulco, Culiacan, Guadalajara, Veracruz, and Mexico City. [Burden, The Mapping of North America 105. Kohl 263. Phillips, America, p. 404. Reinhartz & Saxon, The Mapping of the Entradas into the Greater Southwest, p. 203 and ill. Plate 6.56. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:12 (illustrated 9510:371). Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast 190].

[13] Granata Nova et California. Gulf of California, Mexican coast, and west coast of California, which is shown attached to the mainland; north is to the left. "The New Mexico Lake type [with] devices representing seven cities surrounding the New Mexican lake, with the nearby legend Septem civitatum Patria" (Wheat, vol. I p. 28) "The first printed map devoted to California and the south-west of the present day United States. One of the most interesting features is the depiction of so many fabled places largely from Spanish sources. Most notable amongst these are the seven cities of Cibola.... The seven cities originated from the narrative of Fray Marcos de Niza in 1539.... Some of the other nomenclature originates from Coronado's epic exploration. The outline map is fairly accurate and is derived largely from Petrus Plancius' large world map of 1592. The main coastal irregularity is the westward slant of the Californian coastline. Bearing in mind that it would be shown as part of an island in twenty five years, this is quite forgivable.... No other states of the map are known and all issues are without text on the back" (Burden 106). "Only sixteenth-century printed map specifically devoted to Southern California" (Schwartz & Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America, Plate 41). [JCB, Early American Images 0854-2. Burden, The Mapping of North America 106. California 49: Forty-Nine Maps of California from the Sixteenth Century to the Present, Map 7 (ill. pp. 14 & 15). Kohl 282. Lowery 99. Nebenzahl, Mapping the Transmississippi West 9 (p. 8 & ill. p. 9). Phillips, America, p. 404. Schwartz & Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America Plate 41. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:13 (illustrated 9530:371). Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast 188. Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West 29].

[14] Limes occidentis Quivira et Anian. Early view of the Alaskan coast, the west coast portions of present U.S. and Canada, and the interior (including "Qvivira Regnum"and "Tolm Regnum"). "The surviving pre-discovery maps looking most like Alaska were drawn by Peter Plancius and adapted by other cartographers from about 1590 to 1600.... The apex of this trend was reached by Cornelius Wytfliet [in] the first atlas devoted entirely to America. (Verner and Stuart-Stubbs, The Northpart of America, p. 84, incorrectly state: 'in many respects this map is the first printed map of Alaska.' They apparently were unaware of Plancius, claiming that this map was derived from Gastaldi.) One of the most interesting features of the Wytfliet map is that the Arctic Circle goes through something that resembles the Seward Peninsula in both shape and location. With some imagination, one can conjure up the Mackenzie, the beginnings of an Alaska Peninsula, and so forth.... With the Wytfliet map, Anian Regnum became the dominant name for the region" (Marvin W. Falk, "Images of Pre-Discovery Alaska in the Work of European Cartographers in Arctic, vol. 37, no. 4, Unveiling the Arctic, December 1984, pp. 562-573). "The general shape derives from that of Gerard Mercator's world map of 1569, with a pronounced bulge coincidentally similar to that of Alaska as we know it today, but latitudinally larger so that its south coast is at about 40°.... At the top of the map above the Arctic Circle, we find the by now familiar Northwest Passage" (Burden 107). [Kohl 282. Lowery 85n. Phillips, America, p. 558. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:14 (illustrated 9190.371.1). Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast 189. Burden, The Mapping of North America 107].

[15] Conibas Regio cum vicinis gentibus. Central Canada, Hudsons Bay (or remnants of the Verrazzano sea theory), and the central U.S. The first depiction in a French atlas of the area. "Despite the fact that this map covers territory virtually unknown to the Europeans, it owes its existence to the fact that Wytfliet showed every part of the continent however little knowledge there was of it. This is, however, the first printed map of present day central Canada" (Burden 100). [Kershaw, Early Printed Maps of Canada, pp. 44-46. Phillips, America, p. 558. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:15 (illustrated 9120:371). Burden, The Mapping of North America 100].

[16] Florida et Apalche. Atlantic and Caribbean coast from approximately South Carolina to northeastern Mexico, including part of Yucatán and Cuba. The Rio Grande is shown by its old name, Rio Escondido. "Drawn from the Abraham Ortelius-Gerónimo de Chaves map entitled La Florida, published in 1584. However, here Wytfliet expands the area covered south to include parts of Cuba and north to C. de Arenas or the area of the Outer Banks of Carolina. It also enabled him to include the territory called APALCHE. Most of the cartography is derived from the explorations of Hernando de Soto during the years 1539-42. As such it is one of the few maps of the sixteenth century to record inland information largely drawn from first hand European sources. Along with the Ortelius map of 1584 and the Johannes Metellus of 1598, these are the only printed maps of the present day southern United States published in the sixteenth century" (Burden 104). "Wytfliet's map of the lands north of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida et Apalche, plainly was plagiarized from...Chaves' map recording the discoveries of Cabeza de Vaca, de Soto, and Moscoso [and] one of the earliest printed maps of the territory based and actual observations, and its reproduction in Wytfliet's popular work helped to correct the previous imaginary concepts of the area" (Martin & Martin p. 75). [Cumming, The Southeast in Early Maps 18. Goss, The Mapping of North America 20. Jackson, Flags along the Coast. pp. 7 & 100. Kohl 225n & 264. Lemmon, et al, Charting Louisiana: Five Hundred Years of Maps, Plate 3, p. 25. Lowery 83n. Martin & Martin, Plate 6 & p. 75. Phillips, America, p. 279. Schwartz & Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America, p. 83. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:16 (illustrated 9400:371). Burden, The Mapping of North America 104].

[17] Norumbega et Virginia. The northeastern coast of North America from Virginia to Cape Breton in New France. "This was the most accurate map of the east coast until de Laet (1630), and only the second to use Virginia in the title.... NORVMBEGA, used at first to delineate a large area and a mythical city, later came to be seen to represent the area of Penobscot River in present day Maine" (Burden 103). [Cumming, The Southeast in Early Maps 19. Danforth, The Land of Norumbega: Maine in the Age of Exploration and Settlement 49. McCorkle, New England in Early Printed Maps 597.3 (ill. p. 14). Phillips, America, p. 558. Phillips, Virginia Cartography, pp. 18-19. Schwartz & Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America, Plate 40 (p. 80). Stokes, Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1915-28, II, Plate 20. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:17 (illustrated 9200:371.1 & 2). JCB, Early American Images 0854-1. Burden, The Mapping of North America 103].

[18] Nova Francia et Canada. Northeast Canada. "The last of the eight maps relating to North America in Wytfliet's first atlas of the New World. It is the first to use CANADA in its title, and the first to concentrate on the river and Gulf of St. Lawrence. It summarises sixteenth-century knowledge of the area just prior to the expansion of France here, and voyages of Samuel de Champlain" (Burden 102). [Kershaw, Early Printed Maps of Canada, pp. 40-43 & Plate 22. Kohl 164. Phillips, America, p. 189. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:18 (illustrated 9160:371.1). Burden, The Mapping of North America 102].

[19] Estotilandia et Laboratoris Terra. Centered on Davis Strait; shows Greenland, extreme northeastern Canada, Iceland, and the mythical island of Frisland, which appeared on virtually all of the maps of the North Atlantic from the 1560s through the 1660s, until French and English navigators explored the area. "The map's importance comes from its concentration on the area of the English voyages of Frobisher and Davis; they are depicted here in greater detail than before. Clearly derived from Cornelis Claes Nova Francia of 1594, Wytfliet interestingly draws upon the inset on it for the area of Labrador which had offered an alternative representation to the main map. Some information is shown twice on this map as both Frobisher and Davis visited the same shores but were unaware of the fact" (Burden 101). [Kohl 113. Phillips, America, p. 303. Trudel, Atlas de la Nouvelle France, p. 65. Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:19 (illustrated 9110:371). Burden, The Mapping of North America 101].

"The importance of his only atlas, the first one ever printed dealing exclusively with America, cannot be emphasized enough" (Bornholt, p. 193). "The maps of the Americas are handsomely engraved and several are of special interest; such as the first separate map of the West Coast and Alaska region and the first delineation of the Canadian Northwest" (Hill pp. 331-332). "As important in the history of the early cartography of the New World as Ptolemy's maps are in the study of the Old" (Phillips Atlases 1143). "This French edition of 1605 was considerably enlarged. In addition to the landmark material on the New World, it includes a history and description of the East Indies by Magini and others" (Koeman 371:11). "This completes the story of the popularity of Ortelius down to the publication of Wytfliet, when American cartography obtained its special exponent" (Winsor, p. 472). Alden & Landis 607/100. Borba de Moraes II, p. 381. JCB (1919) II, p. 48. Phillips Atlases 1143. Sabin 105700. 

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