FERRARIS, Joseph-Jean François (1726-1814). Carte Chorographique des Pays Bas autrichiens dediee a leurs Majestes imperiales er royales, gravee par L.A. Dupuis. Sans edit., 1777
24 engraved folding sheets, each laid down on cartographic linen in 12 or 21 sections (5 sheets = 25 x 18 inches, 19 sheets 25 x 36 inches, total map size = ca 100 x 216 inches) (lacking map no 1. "Feuille qui contient l'explication de la Carte..., some staining to versos)
A SUPERB LARGE-SCALE MAP OF THE LOW-COUNTRIES of northwestern Europe, namely Belgium and the Netherlands, with a superb vignette of Ferraris presenting his map to Joseph II to the left. Contained in 5 contemporary tree calf solander boxes, with red morocco lettering pieces on the 'spines' (one or two a little scuffed).
Provenance: with the supra libros on each case of Ernest Augustus (1771–1851), king of Hanover, fifth son of George III and Queen Charlotte, as Duke of Cumberland, his sale Sotheby's 16th December 2010, lot 50
A TRULY MAGNIFICENT MAP OF AUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS, THE SOUTHERN PAYS-BAS, NOW WESTERN BELGIUM, as well as greater Luxembourg, and the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, "y compris les Principautes de Liege et de Stavelo". In 24 sheets, with a detailed key, the vignette of Ferraris presenting the map to Joseph II, and maps centred on Bruges, Antwerp, Roermonde, Guelders, Ypres, Ghent, Brussels, Maastricht, Annon de Louvra, Mons, Namur, Liege, Virnebug, Eschelles, Chimay, Bastogne, Bilbourg, a detailed plan of Brussels, the "Carte Generale", the Key Map, Arion and Luxembourg.
The Comte de Ferraris was commissioned by the Empress Maria Theresa of Austria (the mother of Marie Antoinette) and her son Emperor Joseph II to create this first scientific survey of this rather shaky extension to their empire. The survey began in 1771 and resulted in 275 individual manuscript maps, which can now be seen in the Belgian National Library. In 1777 and 1778 the maps were engraved for sale.
The Austrian Netherlands was the territory, ceded Under the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714 to Austria, which had been in the possession of the Spanish up to the conclusion of the War of the Spanish Succession. Austria retained possession until the territory was annexed during the aftermath of the Battle of Sprimont by French revolutionary forces in 1794 and the Peace of Basel in 1795. During the rule of Maria Theresa, the Austrian Netherlands again "began to prosper as it had during the first half of the Spanish regime. Still, the Austrians were unused to the republican spirit of the southern provinces. When Joseph II succeeded his mother to the throne in 1780, he attempted to force his Enlightenment ideas on the people. In 1783 he abolished contemplative orders, declaring them useless. In 1786 individual religious fraternities were regrouped into a single entity. Seminaries were disbanded and replaced with state schools. In 1787 Joseph negated the centuries-old privileges he had sworn to uphold and eliminated the ruling councils and judiciary bodies on which the people had come to depend. The people were outraged at his interference. Their objection caused some of his edicts to be suspended, but the spirit of the acts remained. When certain rebellious leaders were castigated, a revolution centred in the province of Brabant erupted (1789–90).
"The Brabant Revolution was for a time successful. A republic was proclaimed by the rebels, but it was unable to withstand internal conflicts and external pressures. Regardless of revolutions, the peasants continued to support the emperor. The republic fell within a year. In 1790 Joseph died and the new emperor, Leopold II, offered a restoration of all rights. When for various reasons his offer was refused, the AustrianS resorted to military action. Into this confusion rode the French Revolutionaries in 1792, and they were welcomed as liberators. Austrian rule held sway in 1792–93, but the French were determined to stay. On Oct. 1, 1795, after a period of arbitrary rule, the Austrian Netherlands was annexed to France. After the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, it was merged with the Dutch provinces to become the Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815). An independent Belgium was established in 1831" (Encyclopedia Britannica online).
Created duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, and earl of Armagh, in April 1799, Prince Ernest—"slim, tall, and handsome in his youth—wished to follow a military career and in June 1790 sought permission to train with the Prussian army. But George III insisted he should serve with the 9th Hanoverian hussars (which he entered as lieutenant in 1790 and of which he became lieutenant-colonel in 1793), later transferring him to the less dashing heavy dragoons, a move the prince bitterly resented. He was promoted major-general in the Hanoverian army in February 1794. He fought with courage in Flanders and the Netherlands against the French. When commanding the Hanoverian light battalion of grenadiers at Villers-en-Cauchi on 6 August 1793 he ‘behaved remarkably well, with the greatest coolness and spirit’ (The Later Correspondence of George III, ed. A. Aspinall, 5 vols., 1962–70, 2.72) and apparently carried off bodily a French dragoon officer as prisoner; a similar event has been ascribed to Ernest outside Nijmegen in November 1794" (DNB).
Never very popular in England, and often surrounded by the whiff of scandal, including accusations of murder and incest, from 1818 to 1828 the Cumberlands lived in voluntary exile, mostly in Berlin. As Victoria's eldest surviving uncle the duke was certain of accession in Hanover, becoming King in June of 1837.