Topographia Archiepiscopatuvm Moguntinensis, Treuirensis, et Coloniensis Das ist Beschreibung der Vornembsten Statt vnd Platz in denen Ertzbistumen Mayntz, Trier, vnd Coln. [Frankfurt], Matth. Merian 1646.
Folio (12 x 7 6/8 inches). Engraved title-page. 4 fine double-page engraved maps of Eichsfeld now part of Thuringia, Hassia Superior, Trier, and Cologne, one fine folding engraved panorama of Mainz, 19 double-page engraved plates of views and plans, and 20 full-page plates of views and plans. Modern vellum backed 16th-century red and black letterpress paper boards, vellum corners.
Mogontiacum, the precursor to modern Mainz, was founded by the Roman general Drusus perhaps as early as 13/12 BC. s the capital of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany. It was the capital of the Electorate of Mainz at the time of the Holy Roman Empire, and as this book was being published the reign of Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt, archbishop of Mainz from 1629 to 1647, was coming to an end, and Mainz itself was occupied by the French.
Anselm Casimir was the highest-ranking of the prince-electors and Imperial chancellor for most of the Thirty Years’ War, "he played a distinct role in a key series of political and military events within the Holy Roman Empire,... directed a large part of the Imperial constitutional and legal machinery, [and] was a key figure in coordinating Catholic policy in the Empire, enjoyed a high degree of influence with the emperor. The new archbishop was elected in the midst of the debate over the forcible re-catholicization of all ecclesiastical territory that had been acquired by Protestant princes since the 1555 Peace of Augsburg... The Swedish invasion of North Germany radically transformed the situation. Following the victory at Breitenfeld in September 1631, the troops of Gustavus Adolphus spilled out into the Rhineland; Mainz was occupied and became the center of Swedish military operations for the next four years. While his territory was garrisoned and subjected to massive war taxes, the archbishop was driven into exile. From Cologne, Anselm Casimir conducted extended but fruitless negotiations with France in the hope that diplomatic pressure might persuade the Swedes to accept the French “protection” of his bishopric. Following this failure, the archbishop made a final and definitive shift of alliance over to the emperor, bringing both his territorial resources and his constitutional standing with the other Catholic states directly into the emperor’s service. This overt alliance with the Habsburgs weakened his influence as Imperial chancellor in the negotiations for a peace settlement in the Empire at Pirna, then at Prague. The Swedish pulled out of Mainz in 1635, but when France declared war on the Habsburgs, Mainz was again threatened. It was not until January 1636 that Anselm Casimir finally re-entered his episcopal city. The new phase of the war opened by French intervention and the resurgence of Swedish military pressure ensured that the Imperial chancellor remained at the center of political maneuvers within the Empire, but as a virtual client of the emperor... Although once the Westphalia negotiations opened, he again demonstrated tenacity in arguing against Catholic intransigence and for compromise with both German Protestants and external powers. This did not prevent Mainz being occupied again by the French in 1645, leading to the second exile of the archbishop, who died in Frankfurt in October 1647". (David Parrott. "Der Erzkanzler im Religionskrieg: Kurfürst Anselm Casimir von Mainz, die geistlichen Fürsten und das Reich, 1629 bis 1647 by Franz Brendle (review)." The Catholic Historical Review 100.2 (2014). Catalogued by Kate Hunter